Running Head: THE DADA MANIFESTO                                                                     1






The Dada Manifesto

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THE DADA MANIFESTO                                                                                                2





Dada or Dadaism as it would later come to be called was an art movement which was conceptualized out of the horrific events of World War One in the early years of the twentieth century. This art movement that would eventually become international was initiated by a group of very talented poets and artists who were associated with the night club in Zurich Switzerland called the Cabaret Voltaire where these individuals would meet and discuss the state of politics and art that was prevalent in the world at that time.

One of these individuals that became very influential within the Dada movement itself, he became its President in 1919 was the Romanian artist Tristan Tzara who would eventually write the “The Dada Manifesto 1918” Tristan Tzara, which is a type of Ten Commandments of the lifestyle of Dada( Sandquist, T. 2006).









THE DADA MANIFESTO                                                                                             3

In the writings of the “The Dada Manifesto” written by Tristan Tzara in the year of 1918 he makes reference to a philosophical question that the reader must try and interpret. Tzara states If I Shout Ideal, Ideal, Ideal, Knowledge, Knowledge, Knowledge, Boomboom, Boomboom, Boomboom, he is referring to the political solutions that were being hoisted upon Europe to try to prevent the start of World War One with the various political Ideals being developed by the European nations.                                             Knowledge, Knowledge, Knowledge, was the abstract term that Tzara saw coming from these same European politicians in an attempt to show the nations that they were the only ones endowed with the knowledge and skills to avert the coming bloodbath on the European continent. Finally the terms Boomboom, Boomboom, Boomboom, can be a reference to the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria who was shot in Sarajevo and was the event that started World War One. These references can also be said to be the thundering of the artillery guns that turned the European landscape into carnage with trench warfare.

Tzara also makes reference to the crucifixion of Christ and to the Catholic Church with his references that the latest apparition of a harlot proves the essence of God. He is referring to the church to this image of a harlot. He is also referring to the hypocrisy of the church because of its pursuit of material wealth. Tzara also references the crucifixion with his statement that the love of novelty is a pleasant sort of cross and not the type of cross that was used as an instrument of execution and torture for the man known as Jesus of Nazareth.

THE DADA MANIFESTO                                                                                               4


The concept of Dada was extremely interesting since they proclaimed to be everything and nothing at once. The lifestyle of Dada encompassed the inner most passion of individuals that sought change within a society that had up to that time given them the most devastating war in the history of mankind, and they sought change from such a world and revolted from the sociological restraints that held them and all other human beings in place.  The Dadaist were not only anti-war but were anti-establishment which was at that time referred to as anti-bourgeois, they could be referred to as the hippies of the early part of the twentieth century since their politics was very similar to the protesters of the Vietnam War in the nineteen sixties.

When considering what the Dada movement was able to accomplish as far as politics they really did not have to great of an effect. They voiced their opinions on various issues with intellect and passion as seen by the publication of their manifesto. Their most notable accomplishments would be in the art world. Their work in this field would become the basis of the abstract art movement that Pablo Picasso was to make famous, and Dada would also be the precursor of post modernism, and pop art that would reach its fruition in the decades to come(De Michelle, M. 2006).







REFERENCES:                                                                                                             5

De Michelle, Mario: (2006) Las Venguardias artisticas del siglo XX, Alianza Forma pp.135-137.


Tom Sandquist: DADA EAST: The Romanians of Cabaret Voltaire, London England, MIT Press, 2006

Dada, Dickerson, National Gallery of Art. Washington DC 2006, pp-99








Calculating Cash Flow – Interest Business 101

Part One




Your first client, “Magic Widget” , needs help in the preparation of a cash budget.


Magic Widget is struggling to maintain its position in a highly competitive market place. The Production and Sales Directors therefore require your help on working on a feasible plan to extend the company’s current product range.




The proposal they have put forward involves adapting an existing piece of machinery to produce a new component (code name Big Mac), which would be an upgraded version of a component currently made by a rival company.




The Production Director has obtained a quote to adapt the existing machinery and this would cost £5,000 and be funded at the start of the first month of production.




Following market research by the Sales Director, a selling price of £50 per unit of 007 is considered reasonable. This would reflect a 100% mark-up on the cost of material, which would be bought from a local supplier.




Forecasts are anticipated that 750 units would be sold in the first month, which would increase compounded by 20% per month for the first six months.




The policy of Magic Widget is to allow a one-month credit period for debtors; although it is anticipated that one third of sales of 007 would be cash. Magic Widget anticipates that 10% of sales will not be collected and therefore written off as a bad debt.


Materials supplies by the local suppler are allowed one months credit.




The policy of Magic Widget is to produce enough of the Big Mac components in the first month to meet the estimated demand for the first two months and then from the second month onwards, to produce the forecasted demand for the following month.




Wages are estimated to be £4 per unit produced and would be payable in the same month as the hours worked.




Other expenses are estimated at £3.50 per unit produced, 50% of which would be paid in the month incurred with the remainder paid in the following month.




Finally promotional and marketing costs associated with the launch of Big Mac are estimated to total £3,000 and would be paid in the first month.








  • The Directors of Magic Widget have asked you to prepare a cash budget for the component 007 for the first six months of production, showing clearly the estimated cash balances at the end of each month.



First month Second month Third month Fourth month Fifth month Sixth month
Opening cash balance …….. 25188 63,701 109916 165374 231960
Cash inflow:
Sales cash 12,500 15,000 18,000 21,600 25,934 31,117
Credit 25,000 30,000 36,000 43,200 51,867 62,234
Total cash (A) 37,500 70,188 117701 174716 243175 325311
Cash outflow:
Mach. Purchase 5000
Promotional expenses 3000
Wages 3000 3600 4320 5184 6224 7468
Other expenses 1312 1312










Total payment (B) 12312 6487 7785 9342 11215 16725
Closing balance (A-B) 25,188 63,701 109916 165374 231960 308586












2)      Critically discuss the importance of cash budgeting to Magic Widget whilst it launches its new product Big Mac.

ANSWER: Importance of cash budgeting:


Cash budgeting is an effective tool of cash management and it may help the management in the following ways:

  • Identification of the period of cash shortage so that the financial manager may plan well in advance about arranging the funds at an appropriate time.
  • Identification of cash surplus position and duration for which surplus would be available so that alternative investment of this excess liquidity may be considered in advance.
  • Better coordination of the timing of cash inflows and outflows in order to avoid chances of shortage or surplus of cash etc.

The most widely used method of preparation of cash budget is the receipts and disbursements method, and it is by far the most flexible of the three discussed above. It is the most suitable for the companies faced with considerable uncertainty regarding their cash flows because of volatile sales and earnings records, and for the firms that are experiencing tight cash position. This method permits more frequent interim forecast, on a weekly or bi-monthly basis., and thus enables the financial manager to maintain more effective control over cash flows. The cash budget records each sources of receipts as well as disbursements so that the actual performance during the budget period can be compared with the budget in great detail. This facilitates the matching of the timing of cash payments with the firm’s receipts on a continuous basis and thereby reducing idle cash balance to a minimum level as well as help avoiding the chances of a cash shortage.









Part 2:




Another Client is an outdoor clothing and sports retailer who has asked you to


provide an analysis of the financial performance of Blacks Leisure Group plc for the year ending February 2011. The Blacks annual accounts are on the Blackboard site.




When  preparing this analysis you should focus your analysis of Blacks Leisure plc in terms of performance, liquidity, efficiency and gearing.  You should include in your analysis the following ratios:




  • Return on Capital Employed= this ratio is also known as overall profitability ratio or return on capital employed. The income (output) as compared to the capital employed (input) indicates the return on investment. It shows how much the company is earning on its investment. This ratio is calculated as follows:

Return on investment or capital employed=Net operating profit/ capital employed*100


  • Debtors (receivables) days = This ratio indicates the extent to which the debts have been collected in time. This ratio is infact, interrelated with and dependent upon the Debtors turnover ratio. It is calculated by dividing the days in a year by the Debtors turnover. This ratio can be computed as follows:

                 Debtors (receivables) days = 365days or 52weeks or 12months or                    4quarters/Debtor turnover ratio

            Debtor turnover ratio= Net sales / average debtors


  • Creditors (payables) days = This ratio gives the average credit period enjoyed from the creditors. It can be computed as under:


Creditors (payables) days = 365days or 52weeks or 12months or 4quarters/ creditor turnover ratio

Creditor turnover ratio= credit purchases/ average creditors


  • Current ratio= current ratio also known as working capital ratio, is the most widely used ratio. It is the ratio of total current assets to current liabilities and is calculated by dividing the current assets by current liabilities.


Current ratio= current assets/ current liabilities


  • Gross profit margin= Gross profit ratio expresses the relationship of gross profit to net sales or turnover. Gross profit is the excess of the proceeds of goods sold and services rendered during a period over their cost, before taking into account administration, selling and distribution and financial charges. Gross profit ratio is expressed as follows:


Gross profit margin = Gross profit/sales*100


  • Operating profit margin= one of the components of return on capital employed is the net profit or operating profit margin calculated as:

Operating profit margin=operating profit/sales*100


  • Gearing ratio= The proportion between fixed interest or dividend bearing funds and non- fixed interest or dividend bearing funds in the total capital employed in the business is termed as capital gearing ratio. Debentures, long term loans and preference share capital belong to the category of fixed interest/ dividend bearing funds. Equity share capital, reserves and surplus constitute non-fixed interest or dividend bearing funds. This ratio is calculated as follows:


Gearing ratio = Long term debt +preference share capital / share holder  fund


  • Interest cover = EBIT/ interest


(50 marks)






Do My College Homework

Summary – Email

There has been a prolonged recession on the world economy and it has affected businesses adversely. Impact of recession include: decline in sales profits and revenues, slumping dividends and falling stock, bankruptcy and credit impairment, reduced consumer access, cuts to value of services and goods, benefit reductions and employee lay-offs. Furthermore, marketing constrains on each and every economic pillar and sector coupled with loss of demand and condensed cash flow  has been shown by economics to negatively impact production and this makes it hard for companies to pay their human resources thus carrying out staffing reductions.

For companies to stay in business they take decisive measures so as to counter the impact of recession and a major move includes checking their expenditures, adhering to budgets and seemingly cutting  unnecessary expenses and even carrying out cost reduction programs so as to prevent further loss of funds. Preparing and following a certain set budget is a crucial strategy to ensure that the company stays in business. For instance, the company saw it economical to embark on a project which constitutes the employees collecting litter in the offices and taking it to the recycling baskets in the cellar would significantly reduce the production department’s expenditures.

The magnitude of cost reduction strategies within a business can’t be exaggerated. Companies which are losing capital, have to raise profits, or should become extra competitive and have also to cut overlays so as to succeed. Perceptive on how to execute effective expenditure reduction approaches can be the resolving feature in the endurance of a business.

In business, having a competitive advantage over your opponents makes the company stand out and cost reduction is amongst the strategies which can be applied to achieve that. Importance of cutting expenses include: improved productivity, reduced waste, saving company resources, getting an improved competitive footing, and increased profits. Apparently, offices all over the country are asking their personnel to empty their respective trash bins in place of having some custodial staff to empty them. This undertaking may sound like a diminutive thing, although it may perhaps make a huge variation in overall custodial fees.

Businesses are expected to have Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) which basically refers to the obligations a business has in behaving ethically and contributing to economic expansion whilst improving the value of life of the labor force, families and also the neighboring community. A major strategy applied by businesses is providing rubbish paper recycling baskets and the department by taking up emptying their trash has compelling effects in that it raises the employees’ consciousness about recycling. The program can either be used as a sustainability or environmental initiative but in the long run it achieves the company’s goals regarding CSR.

The two emails meets the goals intended whereby the routine email gives extensive information to the employees on the reason behind introducing the litter collecting initiative in the production department. The email addresses the target reader directly and most importantly it is clear and precise to the point. Similarly, the goodwill email achieves its purpose of favorably impressing the workforce and this has been made possible by the employment of short, spontaneous, sincere, specific, and selfless message conveyed to the employees. The positivity of the tone used in the text is appealing to the target reader as it’s the concrete confirmation of the sender’s contemplation and how much they are willing to show their gratitude by hosting a distinctive dinner for the entire personnel.


















Budget Cuts

Routine email

My fellow workmates, like many businesses and organizations across the country, we are currently facing relentless budget restraints. This production department together with the rest of the departments within the organization is facing a 30% budget cutback this current year. Even though we have less revenue to operate with, we are unenthusiastic to slash services that may weaken our instructional targets/goals.

A closer area where the department can cut expenditure and at the same time not agitate the relationship with our stakeholders is near our office desks. Corporations across the nation are saving funds while at the same time improving their efforts of recycling through having personnel empty their respective trash bins. By striding with your litter to the recycling baskets in the cellar, you will achieve a little of exercise, lessen departmental caretaker expenditure, and more so aid the surroundings with resourceful recycling.

Therefore, as an element of the company’s steering project, the production Department has been chosen to exhibit how efficiently it can execute this outlay-saving project. Starting right away, please discharge your litter on a weekly basis or more regularly if need be. Please assist us set an unsullied model of professional competence in cutting expenses as well as achieving renewability through our efforts in recycling. If you happen to have inquiries or other thoughts for cutting expenditure, please do share with me. I will be expecting all personnel to implement this directive and the floor administrator will be supervising this undertaking and report to me on a weekly basis.
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For the past 3 years, we have embarked on transformed efforts to develop the effectiveness and efficiency of our organization’s monetary budget plan. Similarly, we are all conscious that nowadays the economy is under immense constrains and distinctive challenges mounting to a recession. This has caused our departmental operation and production funds to be severely slashed over the time. Nevertheless, I am overconfident to announce that our department has maintained to carry on a firm budget during these hard times, typically since your department’s capacity to instruct and implement rules efficiently. Therefore, with that having been passed across, we have received recommendation to coach the remainder of the group on our capability to live inside our budget.   So as to demonstrate my gratitude for this endeavor and commendation, I will be hosting a characteristic banquet for the whole department on August 10 2013 at 6pm at the Castle Club. We as the management anticipate that this gesture will act as motivation to the entire company. Friend as well as family is heartened to attend.